The Incredible Years® Blog


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New Research on Incredible Years® at Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE)

New Randomized Control Group Study Presented Using the Incredible Years® (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) Program for Training Primary Grade Teachers at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (March 2014)

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Initial Findings of Randomized Control Group Trial Evaluating the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) Program for Training Primary Grade Teachers

Wendy Reinke and Keith Herman, along with their team at the University of Missouri, recently presented a paper evaluating the effectiveness of the TCM Training Program for improving primary grade teachers’ (K-3) classroom management practices and improving student social, emotional and academic outcomes.

SREE Conference Presentation (click the link to view the conference presentation!)

Study design was a blocked cluster randomized wait-list control trial where over a 3 year period 105 teachers were randomized within schools (52 intervention and 53 control teachers and 1818 students) to an intervention teacher training condition (IY TCM) or wait-list control condition.

The IY TCM Program was delivered to intervention condition teachers grades K-3 in 6 full day training workshops spread throughout the year. Plus teachers got on-site coaching between workshop sessions. Coaches spent time with teachers providing modeling, performance feedback, individual behavior plan action planning and goal setting.

Results showed that according to independent observations intervention teachers used more proactive management strategies and students had fewer problems with emotional regulation and increased prosocial skills. Students with the poorest academic competence at baseline demonstrated significant improvement in academic competence compared with students in the control classrooms.

Further Analyses
In a more recent presentation (May 2014) Wendy and Keith presented data on the amount of coaching support teachers (K-3 grade only) received between workshop sessions and its relation to teacher use of proactive strategies and student outcomes for an at-risk subsample.

Results indicated that IY TCM plus coaching is a flexible approach to tailoring training and support according to individual classroom and teacher needs.

Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., & Dong, N. (March, 2014). A group randomized evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher Training program.Paper presented as part of symposium entitled, What can we learn through replication? The role of individual-level risk factors and implementation supports in the impact of social-emotional learning programs on student outcomes, at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC.

Reinke, W., Stormant, M., Herman, K., Wang, Z., Newcomer, L., King, K. 2014. Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 22(2) 74-82.

See our web site for some of their first papers about IY fidelity program delivery and the importance of teacher coaching and support in combination with workshop trainings.

See below a video of Wendy and Keith discussing managing classroom behavior.

 

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Incredible Years® Building Blocks For Head Start (Part 2)

Benefits of Teacher Training and the Child Dinosaur Curriculum for
Promoting Children’s Social and Emotional Development

Incredible Years® in Head Start (Part 2)

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In our previous post, we discussed how the Incredible Years® (IY) Parent and Teacher Programs have been researched and proven effective in Head Start settings. The IY Child programs have also been studied in a Head Start environment (in conjunction with IY Teacher program), in both a larger classroom prevention setting as well as a smaller treatment group setting for children.

The studies illustrate how children in head start who receive the IY curriculum demonstrate increased social, emotional, and academic skills, as well as reduced aggression. By implementing interlocking programs for parents, teachers AND children, this allows for greater results and consistency for everyone involved. Read on to see how IY Programs have been successful in head start classrooms as well as with groups of children with ADHD and ODD.

Studies: Effects of IY Classroom Management Program for Head Start Teachers headstartquote2

Over the past 20 years, a half dozen randomized control group studies in the US, Wales and Ireland have shown that using the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management Training Series in Head Start or Sure Start (in United Kingdom) results in significant improvements in teacher’s use of student coaching methods, praise, proactive discipline and classroom management strategies. In addition, intervention classrooms (where teachers received IY training) showed increased student positive interactions and cooperation with teachers and peers, school readiness and engagement with school activities compared with control classroom students. Additionally, intervention classrooms had significantly reduced peer aggression than control classrooms.

Webster-Stratton, C., M.J. Reid, and M. Hammond, Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: A parent and teacher training partnership in Head Start. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2001. 30(3): p. 283-302.

Hutchings, J., et al., Early results from developing and researching the Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training Programme in North West Wales. Journal of Children’s Services, 2007. 2(3): p. 15-26.

Study: Effects of Combining the IY Teacher Classroom Management Program with the Child Dinosaur Social and Emotional Curriculum In Head Start Classrooms

This study was designed to assess the effects of the Teacher Classroom Management plus the Classroom Dinosaur Social and Emotional Curriculum (Dinosaur School) for economically disadvantaged populations. Head Start, kindergarten and first grade teachers were selected because of their high rates of families living in poverty. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. In the intervention classrooms, teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly “dinosaur” home activities to encourage parents’ involvement. Children and teachers were observed in the classroom by “blind” observers at the beginning and end of the school year. Results reported from multilevel models of 153 teachers and 1,768 students indicated that teachers used more positive classroom management strategies and their students showed more social competence, emotional self-regulation, school readiness skills and reduced conduct problems compared with control students. Satisfaction of the program was very high regardless of the grade levels.

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Incredible Years® Classroom Dinosaur Child Curriculum

Webster-Stratton, C. and M.J. Reid, Strengthening social and emotional competence in socioeconomically disadvantaged young children: Preschool and kindergarten school-based curricula, in Social competence of young children: Risk, disability, and intervention, W.H. Brown, S.L. Odom, and S.R. McConnell, Editors. 2008, Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.: Baltimore. p. 185-203.

Webster-Stratton, C., M.J. Reid, and M. Stoolmiller, Preventing conduct problems and improving school readiness: Evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher and Child Training Programs in high-risk schools. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2008. 49(5): p. 471-488.

Webster-Stratton, C. and K.C. Herman, Disseminating Incredible Years Series Early Intervention Programs: Integrating and Sustaining Services Between School and Home Psychology in Schools 2010. 47(1): p. 36-54.

Studies: Effects of the Small Group Treatment Dinosaur Curriculum

headstartquote3In addition to the evaluation of the Classroom Dinosaur program with a selected population of socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, four randomized trials have been conducted with children diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and ADHD, using the IY Small Group Dinosaur Curriculum.

These studies have shown increases in children’s emotional language, social skills and appropriate problem solving strategies with peers as well as reductions in conduct problems at home and children.

Webster-Stratton, C., M.J. Reid, and T.P. Beauchaine, Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2011. 40(2): p. 1-13.

Webster-Stratton, C., M.J. Reid, and M. Hammond, Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2004. 33(1): p. 105-124.

Webster-Stratton, C. and M. Hammond, Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: A comparison of child and parent training interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1997. 65(1): p. 93-109.

Building Blocks for Promoting Children’s Cognitive, Social and Emotional Development

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Parents and teachers starting early to work together to build a strong foundation of social and emotional development in children is the most effective way to achieve optimal academic growth and school achievement and reduce delinquency and substance abuse.

For group leader reflections regarding using the IY programs with Head Start, view this video!


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Incredible Years® Building Blocks For Head Start (Part 1)

Benefits of Parents and Teachers Working in Partnership in Head Start: Promoting Children’s
Social Emotional Development and School Readiness (Part 1)

Written by: Carolyn Webster-Strattonheadstart_fb

There is a lot of buzz going around right now about promoting quality Early Childhood Education. We know this is a vital time in children’s lives, where they are learning important lessons about problem solving, engaging with peers, cooperating with teachers and parents, and more. Providing extra support for parents, teachers and children during these early school years can result in lasting skills which will help to reduce aggression and behavior problems, while increasing positive social interactions and academic competence. The Incredible Years® programs (www.incredibleyears.com) aim to do just that, and in this two part series we hope to shine a light specifically on using the Incredible Years® series in a Head Start context.

headstartquote3Numerous randomized control group studies over the past 2 decades have shown that using the Incredible Years® (IY) Parents, Teachers and Children’s Training Series in Head Start or Sure Start (in United Kingdom) results in significant improvements in classroom observations of children’s social competence, emotional literacy, and problem solving with peers. Additionally, there are increases in child cooperation with teachers, engagement with school activities, school readiness and reductions in children’s aggression in the classroom. According to both parent and teacher reports, parent involvement in their children’s school activities as well as with  teachers was significantly improved compared to Head Start control families’ reports.

 

Study #1: Effects of IY Basic Parent Program In Head Start

The first study was carried out in 1998 to examine the effectiveness of the IY parent program for Head Start families. The sample included 426 Head Start mothers and their 4 year old children who generally faced multiple risk factors, including 85% receiving welfare, 55% single parent status, 42% moderately depressed and 28% with substance abuse problems. Approximately 37% represented minority group status, including Asian, Hispanic and African American families. Seven Head Start centers were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or regular Head Start services.

In the intervention condition parents received the IY Parent basic program (9 sessions held weekly for 2 hours) which was delivered by trained family service workers. Additionally, Head Start teachers participated in a 2-day workshop to familiarize them with the IY parent program. Training for both parents and teachers covered the importance of parent-teacher communication and parent involvement in Head Start.

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Results showed significant improvements in blind observations of the intervention group parent behaviors including fewer critical remarks, less harsh discipline and more nurturing and responsive parenting compared with the control group mothers. In turn, the children of intervention group mothers had fewer behavior problems than control group children whose behavior remained unchanged. Intervention group teachers and parents reported significant improvements in children’s behaviors and teachers also reported increases in parents’ involvement and contact with schools. Parent satisfaction with the program was very high with most parents requesting that the program continue longer. One year later, improvements in intervention mothers’ parenting skills and children’s behavior were maintained according to home observations and parent reports.

Webster-Stratton, C. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in Head Start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730.

Study #2: Added Benefits of Longer IY Parent Program plus the IY Teacher Classroom Management Program

In 2001, another study looked at the effectiveness of offering a longer, more comprehensive IY parent program alongside the IY teacher program. The sample included 272 Head Start mothers and 61 teachers. As in study #1, many of the families faced multiple risk factors and 63% represented ethnic minority groups. Fourteen Head Start centers (34 classrooms) were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups.

hsquoteIn the intervention group, parents received the Basic and Advance IY parent programs (16 sessions held weekly for 2 hours).  The material included school readiness training (pre-reading and writing skills) and parent problem solving skills. At the same time, teachers were trained in the IY Teacher Classroom Management Program, which focuses on building relationships with students and parents, proactive discipline and ways to promote student’s social and emotional competence. Teachers received 6 full day workshops spread throughout the school year. The parents in the Head Start control group received their usual services which included some parent education.

teacher-block_wadcResults indicated improvements for intervention group parenting interactions, including more responsive, positive parenting and less negative interactions than control group parents. Parent-teacher bonding was significantly higher for intervention parents who attended six or more intervention sessions than for control group parents. Intervention group teachers had higher scores on classroom management skills than those in the control group. Children in the intervention group showed significant improvements in conduct problems at school and better social skills competence compared with control children. Results indicated significant changes regardless of the ethnicity of the family and high consumer satisfaction scores.

Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: A parent and teacher training partnership in Head Start. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(3), 283-302.

 

More IY Parent and Teacher Studies with High Risk Populations by Independent Researchers

In addition to the developer studies (described above), Dr. Judy Hutchings and her team (in Wales) have conducted studies evaluating the IY basic parent program in Sure Start  (a similar program to Head Start in the UK, for economically disadvantaged families). Short and long term outcomes were impressive for the entire sample, replicating those achieved by the developer, including similar high retention rates. Good outcomes were also achieved for children from the most disadvantaged, typically hard-to-engage families with clear evidence that change in parenting behavior mediated changed child behavior.

Additionally, the Wales team evaluated the IY teacher programs as well as parent programs with positive outcomes in terms of changes in teacher and student outcomes.

Bywater, T., Hutchings, J., Daley, D., Whitaker, C., Tien Yeo, S., Jones, K., et al. (2009). Long-term effectiveness of a parenting intervention for children at risk of developing conduct disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 318-324.

Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., & Daley, D. (2007). A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in Sure Start services for pre-school children at risk of developing conduct disorder: how and why did it work? Journal of Children’s Services, 2(2), 4-14

Gardner, F., Hutchings, J., & Bywater, T. (2010). Who benefits and how does it work? Moderators and mediators of outcome in a randomized trial of parenting interventions in multiple ‘Sure Start’ services. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 1-13.

Hutchings, J., Daley, D., Jones, E. E., Martin, P., Bywater, T., & Gwyn, R. (2007). Early results from developing and researching the Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training Programme in North West Wales. Journal of Children’s Services, 2(3), 15-26.

Other independent replications using randomized control group studies have been conducted utilizing the Incredible Years Parenting Programs in the United Kingdom, Norway, Ireland, Holland and Portugal. Some of these studies use the prevention version of the program and others are offered as treatment programs for children with conduct problems and ADHD.

See Incredible Years web site for these articles: http://incredibleyears.com/research-library/

Summary

Despite the successful research by the developer and other researchers in 5 other countries, there are still many challenges ahead – of course including the potential funding restrictions arising from cuts in government funding. Early intervention requires sustained support from politicians, agency directors, trainers, mentors and coaches. 

 


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The Incredible Years® in Pediatric Settings

Evaluation of a parenting program for treating children’s early disruptive behavior problems delivered in a pediatric setting. 

In well child visits pediatricians frequently see parents who are asking about their children’s hyperactivity, aggression and defiant behaviors. Such behaviors are a developmentally normal phase for toddlers because they lack the language and self-regulation skills to control their impulses.  However, toddlers and preschoolers who exhibit these behaviors at high intensity and frequency are at risk for continuing this disruptive behavior pattern in later childhood and many parents and caregivers do not have the parenting tools to respond effectively.  These early onset behavior problems are associated with academic underachievement, and confer risk for later life psychopathology including criminality and substance abuse (Tremblay, Nagin, & Seguin, 2004).  Effective early intervention is crucial.

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Unfortunately even though numerous clinical trials, meta-analyses, and consensus guidelines recommend that psychosocial interventions should constitute the first-line approach for treatment of early disruptive behavior problems, the proportion of children receiving evidence-based programs is decreasing (Comer, Chow, Chan, Cooper-Vince, & Wilson, 2013). Children are more likely to receive psychotropic medications, even though controlled trials of the efficacy of this approach for this age group have not been conducted.

Primary care physicians, who see families frequently during a child’s early years, are strategically placed to help parents prevent the development of serious disruptive behavior problems and to expand the availability and accessibility of services by offering evidence-based parent training programs.

A newly published randomized control group trial has tested the efficacy of using the Incredible Years® (IY) toddler parent program in 11 diverse primary care rural and urban pediatric practices (Perrin, Sheldrick, McMenamy, Henson, & Carter, 2014).

Ellen PerrinThis study was conducted by Dr. Ellen Perrin, a developmental-behavioral pediatrician who is Director of Research at the Center for Children with Special Needs and  Professor at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston Massachusetts.

This particular evidence-based program was chosen because of its extensive research and ease of delivery. A recent meta-analyses of  50 studies utilizing the IY program reported its success in improving child behavior in a diverse range of families (Menting, Orobio de Castro, & Matthys, 2013).

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Study Method

Parents were selected for this program based on behavioral screening above the 80th percentile on the Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment Scale. The study sample is characterized as high risk or borderline clinical because children were selected based on elevated symptoms of behavior problems.  A total of 150 parents were randomly assigned to either the IY 10-week, 2-hour parent program or a waiting list control group.  An additional 123 parents were assigned to the parent intervention without a randomly selected comparison group. The parent program was offered primarily by psychologists or social workers in conjunction with a member of the pediatric office staff.  Among the 3 study groups, 54% to 73% completed at least  7 group sessions.

Positive results

Results showed that parents who participated in the IY program reported more change in self-reported parent and toddler outcomes at post treatment than did parents in the waiting list control condition. Analyses of independent videotaped observations of parent-toddler interactions showed that negative parenting, child disruptive behaviors and negative child-parent interactions were lower at post treatment and at 12-month follow-up compared with baseline observations for parents who received the program.  No differences were found for the waiting list control parents at post condition compared with baseline.

The findings are very promising and suggest that offering the IY program as a group model in pediatric settings is a cost effective way of reducing children’s behavior problems and providing secondary preventive intervention (Stein, 2014). (Stein, 2014). The next step is to convince practitioners, who typically see these families in individual treatment sessions, of the value of the group learning model for providing behavioral training for parents of young children and building support networks for their families.

Please don’t hesitate to contact us for more information about the Incredible Years® Programs and/or this recent research!

Click this link to read the full article!

If you are interested in learning more about The Incredible Years programs, click this link to go to our website.

References:

Comer, J. S., Chow, C., Chan, P. T., Cooper-Vince, C., & Wilson, L. A. (2013). Psychosocial treament efficacy for disruptive behavior problems in very young children: A meta-analytic examination Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(1), 26-36.

Menting, A. T. A., Orobio de Castro, B., & Matthys, W. (2013). Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parent Training to Modify Disruptive and Prosocial Child Behavior:A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 901-913.

Perrin, E. C., Sheldrick, R. C., McMenamy, J. M., Henson, B. S., & Carter, A. S. (2014). Improving parenting skills for families of young children in pediatric settings: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of American Medical Association Pediatrics, 168(1), 16-24.

Stein, M. T. (2014). Group-Based Parenting-Skills training in primary care offices:Are we ready for the challenge? Journal of American Medical Association, 168(1), 7-9.

Tremblay, R., Nagin, D., & Seguin, J. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114, 43-50.


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Helping Teachers Develop Successful Classroom Management Strategies

As many of you know, teachers find themselves spending increasing amounts of time attending to students’ aggressive, hyperactive and non-compliant behaviors in the classroom. Not only does this cause stress and put pressure on teachers, it can create a negative environment for students and eventually lead to serious problems in school, as well as antisocial behavior. We believe it is vitally important to equip teachers with the necessary tools and resources so they feel empowered and supported to work in the school setting and manage difficult behaviors.

The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program aims to provide early preschool and kindergarten teachers with the skills to effectively manage their classroom and promote children’s social, emotional, and academic competence. This particular program is led by a group leader who provides 6 full day workshops to teachers, providing them with information and tools to practice in the classroom. During these  workshop days, teachers learn about the following:

  • Building positive relationships with students
  • Providing attention, coaching, encouragement and praise
  • Motivating students through incentives
  • Decreasing inappropriate behavior
  • Emotional regulation, social skills and problem-solving training

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Group leaders offer a collaborative and experiential approach, focusing on teacher goals and tailoring the groups for special needs and situations.

The Incredible Years is hosting a Group Leader training for those interested in leading these teacher groups, April 2-4, in Seattle, WA. This accredited training will be led by an experienced Incredible Years Certified Trainer and will provide group leaders with the understanding and skills to begin to implement the Teacher Classroom Management Program. School Counselors and Psychologists, Teachers, and other School Coordinators may be interested in attending this training in order to learn how to lead these teacher workshops.

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We would love to have you attend this training! For more information, click this link to view our workshop schedule or e-mail/call the Incredible Years (incredibleyears@incredibleyears.com or 888-506-3562). You can also view more information by clicking here.

We look forward to hearing from you!

For those interested in learning more about this program, we would recommend you take a look at some of our informational videos available online. These videos show teacher, group leader, and trainer perspectives regarding the Teacher Classroom Management program. View the videos by clicking on this link. You may also be interested in reading this article regarding Teacher Program Content, Methods and Process, here!

We hope you will share this information with teachers and other colleagues who may be interested. Our goal is to provide as much support and assistance as possible to all of the wonderful teachers out there!